PC stuff

chrome memory hog - chrome://flags/#enable-tab-discarding


PC/how_to_install_win7_from_usb.htm   (Create an ISO file from the Windows 7 DVD)   



How to turn your Windows 10 upgrade files into an ISO disk image   

windows10_upgrade.htm (8/2015) (upgraded on 7/8/16)

Tips for Using Public Wi-Fi Networks

(1) Browse to C:\$Windows.~BT\Source and see if you have a file called install.esd. It should be about 2.7GB in size and have a file date of July 28th, 2015 or later. Just make sure you DO NOT ALTER the contents of the folder (unless you want to risk screwing something up). 

(2) hey that install.esd is in another folder in my laptop. i have the $windows.~bt folder,but that is just 140mb and that install.esd file is in the windows>softwaredistribution>downloads>(some long digit folder)… and my update process hasn't started.. so is there something wrong?



Advanced Partitioning

Windows doesn't allow for anything but very basic partition management after you create one, but a number of software programs exist that can help if you need them.

See my Free Disk Partition Management Software for Windows list for updated reviews on these tools and more information on what exactly you can do with them.



Win 7 32 bit won't format 3TB Hard Drive

Q: is there a way to do it? if I must get it formatted by a 64 bit OS will I be able to see it on my 32 bit windows.

A: You can use 32 bit if you don't mind using Seagate Discwizard and requiring two partitions. Pay special attention to the note on RST driver if using an Intel motherboard.



AsRock has a tool to unlock drives over 2 T. I am not sure if it works for your board or not though... Worth a shot
Read more: http://forums.tweaktown.com/all-other-hardware/51472-how-do-i-get-windows-7-correctly-recognise-3tb-seagate-internal-hdd.html

Did you try the Asrock 3TB+ Unlocker Utility? You may want to update the BIOS as well. You will want to be sure that this is your motherboard before a BIOS flash.
Read more: http://forums.tweaktown.com/all-other-hardware/51472-how-do-i-get-windows-7-correctly-recognise-3tb-seagate-internal-hdd.html


How to fix pokey WiFi at home - <1>   <2>  

10/30/2017 Update:

buy 802.11ac.  802.11n is old.

1. disabling support for the now-obsolete 802.11b standard   - mine is  Edimax EW-7811Un 150 Mbps Wireless 11n Nano Size USB Adapter with EZmax Setup Wizard  supporting 150 Mbps 802.11n

2. buying a dual-band router (The second 5GHz WiFi band brings a couple of key advantages: It's far less susceptible to interference and it delivers much faster speeds.) - But Edimax only support Channels 2.4GHz.  Not 5GHz.

Dual-band router: TP-Link AC1900 - $89.95 & FREE Shipping (10/30/2017) -
Single Band 5GHz Wireless USB Adapter: [note: not 2.4GHz.  not PCI]
Dual Band Wireless USB Adapter: 
    - USBNOVEL USB Wifi Adapter 600Mbps USBNOVEL Dual Band 2.4G / 5G Wireless Wifi Dongle Network Card for for Laptop Desktop Win XP/7/8/10 , Mac OS X 10.4-10.12.2  - Amazon $16.99
    - TP-LINK Archer T4U AC1200 Wireless Dual Band USB Adapter - newegg $26.97 (10/30/2017)
          Newer version: P-LINK Archer T4U_V2 AC1300  but has problem with windows 10 creators update   src


      Pros: works with Windows 10

      Cons: does not work with windows 10 creators update. when I received it I posted in TP-Link forum and asked what Realtek chipset this used, never got a reply. Driver posted on TP Link's site are older than drivers built-in to Windows 10.

      Update: I managed to find some updated drivers for Realtek RTL8812AU chipset. TP-Link has not posted anything new and are completely useless. Driver is 1030.13.704.2016 dated 12/19/2016. works most of the time now, not perfect. Realtek does not post drivers for WLAN adapters I guess.


      Pros: Worked wonderful, I've owned mine since days of Windows 8.1, solid cheap adapter.

      Cons: Driver and product support on TP-Link's site is vague, no release notes clearly labeled for drivers. Their "new" drivers dated March 2017 are actually 2015 drivers. None the less, when you force install them under windows 10 after the creator's update, they resolved my slow wifi speed and connection woes.

      Other Thoughts: Hopefully TP-Link will soon release a signed updated driver for the Windows 10 Creator's update. After the update, the fastest connection I can connect to via 5Ghz is 400Mbps using either N or AC mode. Not the 867Mbps prior to the Windows update. If you are stuck w/ connection issues, download the updated driver, manually install the driver by clicking "have disk". Also, this is the name of the updated driver file you'll need from their site: ArcherT4U(US)_V2_161129_Windows.

TP-Link Dual-band  Gigabit Wireless Wi-Fi Router

Question: Can anyone confirm what router version of the AC1750 is being sold by Amazon.com? There are v.1 and v.2 versions of this router.

I bought one March 7, 2014 and it is v.1. I am having issues with it having slow downs and connection drops on 5ghz or 2.4ghz. I have had to reboot it twice in the last month because nothing can connect to it. I have changed the channel width to 20hz to try and address some of the stability issues. Doesn't seem to have any effect. I'm too late to return it now.
By a.l. on April 13, 2014

This is not in reference to the firmware. From my understanding the internal wireless chip is different for version 1 and 2. That being said I can not say which one Amazon is selling but I would like to know as well. There are many complaints about the version 1 units which seem to be corrected in the version 2. 
By M. Pettinger on April 13, 2014

April 21, 2014 purchase is v2. 
By SUSS on April 30, 2014

I just received mine from Amazon today (7/24/2017). Apparently there is still some V1 stock in play within their network. That is the version I received. I chatted with customer service and asked them to send another one with a shipping note to check the box for Version 2. The version number was listed next to the bar code area on the bottom of the box. My box was shades of green and white. If someone remembers the actual color of their box for a V2, please reply with an update. The newer ones may be in a different color scheme? If so, they may help the Amazon agents put notes to pull a V2 box.
By Addison J on July 25, 2017

Received a v1 from an order placed on 4/30/14. Amazon is shipping a replacement v2 for me and will include an RMA label to return the v1. Should have it in two days. 
By blyons on May 3, 2014

11/21/2016 version 2, directly from Amazon. 
By Reviewer on November 22, 2016

Bought in early 2017, was v2. Router is crap. Home internet is 300Mb down, get 40-90 Mb / s with this router. v4 of router gets me full bandwidth (actually 350 mb/s) - used a friend's v4 for comparison. Switched to Netgear Nighthawk 3200, more $$$ but solid as a rock. v2 is better than v1, but that is like saying a Ford Festiva is faster than a Yugo.
Just Me answered on July 13, 2017



Dual-band router:
   - Linksys E2500 (N600) Advanced Simultaneous Dual-Band Wireless-N Router (amazon
   - EA2700 (amazon)
   - D-Link Wireless AC 750 Mbps Home Cloud App-Enabled Dual-Band Broadband Router (DIR-810L)  (amazon
   - Time Warner List: Zoom Telephonics AC1900 Cable Modem/Router (5363)  (amazon - $169.95 & FREE Shipping, 2/26/2015) 

Dual Band Wireless USB Adapter: 
   - TP-LINK TL-WDN3200 N600 Dual Band Wireless USB Adapter, 2.4GHz 300Mbps/5Ghz 300Mbps (amazon
   - newer model:   TP-LINK Archer T4U AC1200 Wireless Dual Band USB Adapter, 2.4GHz 300Mbps/5Ghz 867Mbps, USB 3.0  - $29.99 (12/1/2014)

Time Warner List of cable modem: D-Link DCM-301  (amazon: $79.99 & FREE Shipping)

Google: Why home wifi is slow?

Top 10 Ways to Boost Your Home Wi-Fi 

10. Use the Latest Wi-Fi Technologies

Wireless A, B, and G are old and slow, and wireless N (and the even newer wireless AC) will give you the fastest speeds around. Note that you’ll need both a wireless N router and a wireless N card in your computer if you want the full speed boost.

Know Your Network, Lesson 1: Router Hardware 101

9. Find the Perfect Spot for Your Router

Why Is Wi-Fi Coverage So Bad in My House, and How Can I Fix It?

8. Find the Right Wireless Channel

    Use a tool like Wi-Fi Stumbler or Wi-Fi Analyzerto find the perfect channel in your house. We have more detailed instructions on how to do that here.

7. Get Rid of Interference from Other Appliances

     Buying a dual band router can help with this, but you can also buy cordless phones on other bands too. If you don’t want to buy new hardware, you can always try moving your router further away from interfering appliances, too. 

6. Thwart Wi-Fi Thieves with Better Security

ways to find out if someone is stealing your Wi-Fi

Goto: .  Enable.  Click Wireless Client List. 

MAC list



RTX launches new cordless Skype phone

Skype and Landline Phone - Internet Phone & Internet Phone ( VoIP ), 2450666 - HKTDC

3 Skypephone delivers free Skype to Skype Mobile calls and instant messages

Future silicon platforms including Intel's upcoming 7th Gen Intel Core (Kaby Lake) processor family and AMD’s 7th generation processors (e.g. Bristol Ridge) will only be supported on Windows 10 (not 7).  ... for now, don't buy an Intel seventh-generation Core nor an AMD Zen CPU if you want to keep running Windows 7 or 8.1.  src [2 Sep 2016]

newPC2014.htm   [AMD FX-6300 Vishera 6-Core is 6th generation.]

6th Generation AMD A-Series Processors

AMD FX Processor AMD A10 Processor AMD A8 Processor

newPC3   newPC2     newPC    Asrock_970_extreme3.info.htm  (5 x SATA3)  

PC_wontBoot.htm   would a loose SATA cable cause blue screens?   Could SATA cables be of different quality?     videoCard_HDMI_Audio_USB_Bracket.htm (7/2013)    RR_setup.htm   

New PC 2017 beyond:

<1> video card: AMD ‘Fiji’ GPUs (Radeon R9 Fury/Fury X/Nano) - with displayport?  But my TV not support.

<2> CPU: AMD FX 83xx - support Win 7?  I think so.  Vishera is still 6th generation and sit on AM3+.  Alert: 7th generation processors will sit on AM4 but not support Win7.

AMD FX-8300 Vishera 8-Core 3.3 GHz Socket AM3+ 95W FD8300WMHKBOX Desktop Processor – newegg - $100 (3/31/2017)  - may have heating problem and may show insignificant improvement over my 6300.


To play 4k video, think about switching to more expensive Intel CPU (e.g., i5) rather than AMD's.


<3> Mobo: AM4 - not support Win7.  Intel new mobo support neither.

<4> Memory: 64bit Win7 and Win10 can have >4 GB.  DDR4?

<5> PSU: 550W.  Better 600W.

<6> SSD: 240GB.  Not 120GB.


Newegg wish list:

ASRock Z270 KILLER SLI/AC LGA 1151 Intel Z270 HDMI SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.0 ATX Motherboards - Intel   $139.99

RAIDMAX Scorpio series RX-635AP-S 635W ATX12V / EPS12V SLI Ready CrossFire Ready 80 PLUS BRONZE Certified Modular Power ...   $54.99

Intel Core i5-6400 6 MB Skylake Quad-Core 2.7 GHz LGA 1151 65W BX80662I56400 Desktop Processor Intel HD Graphics 530   $184.99  (So no need video card)

Crucial 8GB 288-Pin DDR4 SDRAM DDR4 2133 (PC4 17000) Desktop Memory Model CT8G4DFS8213   $54.88 each x2 = $109.76


Intel for my new PC?

ASRock Z270 KILLER SLI/AC LGA 1151 Intel Z270 HDMI SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.0 ATX Motherboards - Intel

1. Onboard Video:

Supports Intel HD Graphics Built-in Visuals: Intel Quick Sync Video with AVC, MVC (S3D) and MPEG-2 Full HW Encode1, Intel InTru 3D, Intel Clear Video HD Technology, Intel Insider, Intel HD Graphics
Gen9 LP, DX11.3, DX12
HWA Encode/Decode: VP8, HEVC 8b, VP9, HEVC 10b (For 7th Gen Intel CPU)
HWA Encode/Decode: VP8, HEVC 8b; GPU/SWEncode/Decode: VP9, HEVC 10b (For 6th Gen Intel CPU)
Max. shared memory 1024MB
Dual graphics output: Support DVI-D and HDMI ports by independent display controllers
Supports HDMI with max. resolution up to 4K x 2K (4096 x 2160) at 24Hz / (3840 x 2160) at 30Hz
Supports DVI-D with max. resolution up to 1920x1200 at 60Hz
Supports Auto Lip Sync, Deep Color (12bpc), xvYCC and HBR (High Bit Rate Audio) with HDMI Port (Compliant HDMI monitor is required)
Supports HDCP with DVI-D and HDMI Ports
Supports Full HD 1080p Blu-ray (BD) playback with DVI-D and HDMI Ports

Intel HD Graphics Built-in Visuals and the VGA outputs can be supported only with processors which are GPU integrated.*
The size of maximum shared memory may vary from different operating systems.
Due to chipset limitation, the Blu-ray playback of Intel HD Graphics is only supported under Windows 8 / 8 64-bit / 7 / 7 64-bit.
Intel InTru 3D is only supported under Windows 8 / 8 64-bit / 7 / 7 64-bit.

*Example: CPU I5-6400 - it is an Intel® HD Graphics 530, i.e., it has onboard graphics.  The system (mobo+cpu) can operate without an extra GPU (video card).  More details about every thing including speeds for 1080p 4K etc at https://ark.intel.com/products/88185/Intel-Core-i5-6400-Processor-6M-Cache-up-to-3_30-GHz in the graphics section

2. It has 802.11ac WiFi. 

Guide to HEVC/H.265 Encoding and Playback - TechSpot

Hardware Support

Here’s a quick rundown of well-known hardware that includes dedicated HEVC decoding blocks, which definitely support efficient HEVC playback:

·         - Intel 6th-generation ‘Skylake’ Core processors or newer

·         - AMD 6th-generation ‘Carizzo’ APUs or newer

·         - AMD ‘Fiji’ GPUs (Radeon R9 Fury/Fury X/Nano) or newer

·         - Nvidia GM206 GPUs (GeForce GTX 960/950) or newer

·         - Other Nvidia GeForce GTX 900 series GPUs have partial HEVC hardware decoding support




AMD FX Processors​
Model Number Frequency Total L2 Cache L3 Cache Packaging Thermal Design Power CMOS Technology

FX 9590*

4.7/5.0 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

FX 9370*

4.4/4.7 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

FX 8370

4.0/4.3 GHz



socket AM3+


​32nm SOI

FX 8370E 

​3.3/4.3 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

FX 8350

4.0/4.2 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

FX 8320

3.5/4.0 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

FX 8320E

3.2/4.0 GHz



socket AM3+


32nm SOI

​​FX 8300




​socket AM3+


​32nm SOI


December 24, 2012 : A new-born desktop PC was made at my home tonight. I just installed Win7 using USB flash drive, my 1st time to do new PC installation without DVD/CD. Learn something new at this special night. Merry Christmas to All!

1. Video Card: SAPPHIRE 100119L Radeon X550 256MB 128-bit DDR PCI Express x16 - 5.5 yr old.
2. SSD: SAMSUNG 830 Series MZ-7PC128B/WW 2.5" 128GB SATA III MLC Internal - nearly 6 months. Running light speed.
3. EIZO 16" LCD monitor with built-in speaker. About 10 yr old? At that time, $600? Very expensive but sharper than Dell UltraSharp.
4. old PS2 keyboard. Borrowing my laptop USB wired mouse. old SATA HDDs.

November 25, 2012 : Just bought Linksys E1200 Wireless-N Router ($30).

6/4/2013: replace with a new CR2032 mobo battery on the old PC.  I bought 5 Maxell and just used one.

6/18/2013 (Tue): start using Asrock 970 (the new one) with 128GB SSD as main PC.  Semi-retire the old one.

9/2014: build a new PC with GIGABYTE 3D AURORA Silver Aluminum Case & ASRock 970 Extreme3 R2.0 AM3+ AMD Motherboard.  Installed Win7 64bit.

6/2015: PSU COOLMAX ZX Series ZX-700 700W (bought 12/15/2012 ; so 2-1/2 yr) died.  Buy another Antec VP-450 450W ATX 12V v2.3 ($39.99 minus $10 rebate card)

5/2016: take out 1TB WD HDD (bought 5/2009 - 7 years) from my 32bit Win7 home desktop.  Put 3TB HDD.  The 1TB HDD has all my pictures taken mostly with my GH2 in NYC Area.

Problem:  How to make my BlacX read the 1TB HDD?

Suggested solution:

(1) 64bit PC - reactivate HDD and change drive letter.

(2) try reading from my BlacX connected with 64bit PC

1. My BlacX can read my 3TB HDD formatted by my 64bit Win7 PC when it is connected with my Win7 32bit PC. 
2. I put the 1TB HDD to my Win7 64bit PC.  Make the PC join Home Group and share the drive.  Then my 32bit PC can read-write access folders on the drive.  Though the 64bit PC cannot see any folder in 32bit PC; don't know why.   

7/2016: Upgrade from Win7 64bit to Win10.  A clean install without retain any file on C drive.

Archive folder:  /tmp2/PC/archive/

3/25/2017 on my Win7 32bit computer:

Take out Radeon HD 5450.  Installed SAPPHIRE Radeon R7 350 DirectX 12 100385L 2GB 128-Bit GDDR5 PCI Express 3.0.  Still cannot play "See You Tomorrow 2016 1080p WEB-DL x264 2Audio-WHD.mkv" smoothly.  And can't play 4k video "Journey To Space (2015) Multi 2160p 4K UltraHD BluRay (x265 HEVC 10bit) ATMOS 7.1 ESub -DDR.mkv".

Reason:  probably CPU is not enough power.  When playing 2160p video with vlc or 5KPlayer, CPU is 100%.  The "See You Tomorrow 2016 1080p" video may be defective (note that its CPU usage is < 50%).  My CPU is : AMD Athlon II X4 640 Propus 3.0GHz Socket AM3 95W Quad-Core Desktop Processor ADX640WFGMBOX . A 2010 chip (review).

Solution: pair the R7 350 with my Win10 64bit computer's CPU.  Or upgrade CPU/PSU/RAM (if convert into 64bit OS).

4/3/2017 on my Win7 32bit computer:  AMD FX-6300 Vishera 6-Core 95W ($81 from newegg.com) replaces the old CPU ( AMD Athlon II X4 640 Propus 3.0GHz Socket AM3 95W Quad-Core Desktop Processor ADX640WFGMBOX  - released 7 years ago and bought 12/2012).  But still cannot play 4k video "Journey To Space (2015) Multi 2160p 4K UltraHD BluRay (x265 HEVC 10bit) ATMOS 7.1 ESub -DDR.mkv".
AMD Athlon II X4 640 is put back in the package box and is put inside one of the 2 boxes over the bookshelf inside bedroom.

Note on thermal interface material -
What type of thermal interface material does AMD recommend to be used with an AMD64 processor?

Suggested Thermal Interface Materials

Manufacturer Interface Material Material Type Application
Bergquist TIC-3000 Grease Processor to heatsink
Shin Etsu G751 (amazon) Grease Processor to heatsink
Shin Etsu X23-7762 Grease Processor to heatsink
Shin Etsu X23-7783D Grease Processor to heatsink
Thermoset, Lord CPD TC-350 Grease Processor to heatsink

1/2017: Status of 32bit Win7 desktop -

(1) Installed Physical Memory (RAM) 4.00 GB
           - Dual Channel DDR3
           - 4 x DDR3 DIMM slots
           - Support DDR3 2100(OC)/1866(OC)/1800(OC)/1600(OC)/ 1333/1066/800 non-ECC, un-buffered memory
           - 12/2012 from newegg.com:  Crucial Ballistix 4GB (2 x 2GB) 240-Pin DDR3 SDRAM DDR3 1866 (PC3 14900) Desktop Memory Model BLT2KIT2G3D1869DT1TX0

  • DDR3 1866 (PC3 14900)
  • Timing 9-9-9-24
  • Cas Latency 9
  • Voltage 1.5V
  •            - potential upgrade candidate: to run dual channel, buy 2 of  G.SKILL Ripjaws X Series 4GB 240-Pin DDR3 SDRAM DDR3 1866 (PC3 14900) Desktop Memory Model F3-14900CL9S-4GBXL - https://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16820231720 ($28.99 each at newegg.com 1/28/2017)

    (2) My SSD C drive: SAMSUNG 830 Series MZ-7PC128B/WW 2.5" 128GB SATA III MLC Internal

    3/2017: new PC needs a more juicy PSU to support video card capable playing 4k video.  Now both my 32bit & 64bit Win7 uses the Antec VP-450 450W ATX 12V v2.3; bought at 6/2015 & 2/2013, respectively.

    AMD FX 6-Core Black Edition

    Desktop MB

    HD 5450                                  ->   R7 360 (for HDR video display)        +55W  = 522W

    2GB DDR3  x2           1W x2

    DVD-RW                     29W

    7200 3.5 HDD x2  =  15W x2

    SSD 120-256GB


    totally 467W


    If buy new PSU, buy at least 550W or even 600W.

    video card capable playing 4k video:  

    (1) AMD Radeon R7 360 


           newegg: XFX Radeon R7 360 R7-360P-2DF5 2GB 128-Bit DDR5 PCI Express 3.0  ($90.00) (Minimum Power Supply Requirement: 500W; XFX Recommended Power Supply: XFX 650W PSU) - compatible with my PC? My mobo is only PCI Express 2.0.   Those PCIe 3.0 card is backward compatible to PCIe 1.1.  So it doesn't matter.

    No need new mobo, e.g., AMD Promontory B350:  newegg: ASRock Fatal1ty AB350 Gaming K4 AM4 AMD Promontory B350 ($105.00)

    Note: Entire Range of AMD Ryzen AM4 Motherboards Pictured in Full Detail – X370, B350, A320 Products Featuring ASUS, GIGABYTE, MSI & ASRock (Don't buy AM4 mobo & Zen CPU, may not support Win7)

    Conclusion: Go ahead to buy those PCIe 3.0 video card

    Any card which is the 900 series is fine for 4K video at 60Hz. Look for HDMI 2.0 support.
    Any card which is GT 740 or higher is fine for basic 4K output at 24Hz over HDMI.
    Any card with DisplayPort outputs is fine for 4K at 60Hz frequency.

    The PCI-E bus doesn't matter. All cards are compatible with even PCI-E 1.1, and frankly it doesn't come into play here at all. It's for communication between the processor and graphics card.   src

    (2) SAPPHIRE Radeon R7 350 DirectX 12 100385L 2GB 128-Bit GDDR5 PCI Express 3.0  - newegg (bought for $50, 3/2017)  According to AMD, support 4k.  400W Power Supply (Suggestion).
            Con: (1) No DisplayPort.  (2) not 192-bit. (3) Does the heat sink and fan take up the slot next too it?  "Yes despite it's description it does take up two slots. But is relatively short, I have it installed on an AM1 itx board and case and is a perfect pair for power savings and versatility. Also keep in mind this card is a relabeled 7750 so it doesn't have the recent gen specs of higher end 3xx models."  "The entire graphics card, including the heatsink and fan shroud, take up the width of just one slot on the computer's case. If there something installed in the next slot on the motherboard, the graphic card's fan shroud would still have about 1.5cm of clearance."
            Pro: (1) "Affordable price, relatively low power consumption, and quite 50% performance improvement over [my (the reviewer)] previous card: R7 240 2GB."

    My online / ISP history:

    - AOL dial-up with my own 56k or slower modem (around 1995)

    - Juno/NetZero or other free/budget dial-up (Metro? etc.)

    - Aweb.com

    - Verizon (or the former company before rename/merging) DSL

    - NYSIF provides RR Cable ISP

    - RR Cable ISP paid by me.

    Note:  1996-1997: Bell Atlantic's merger with NYNEX.  Verizon Communications formed in June 2000 when the Federal Communications Commission approved a US$64.7 billion merger of telephone companies Bell Atlantic and GTE.

    PSU Buyer's Guide: Holiday 2014

    http://www.anandtech.com/show/8754/psu-buyers-guide-holiday-2014   (December 3, 2014)

    Holiday 2014 PSU Selection Guide

    Output range

    Value Band

    Performance Band

    300-400 Watts

    Antec EarthWatts EA-380D ($40)

    Seasonic SS-400FL2 ($115)

    400-600 Watts

    Corsair CS450M ($60)

    Silverstone NightJar NJ520 ($145)

    600-800 Watts

    Rosewill Photon 650 ($80)

    Corsair AX760i ($185)

    800-1100 Watts

    EVGA 850 B2 ($95)

    Corsair HX1000i ($230)

    Over 1100 Watts

    Seasonic SS-1200XP3 ($250)

    Corsair AX1500i ($388


    300 to 400 Watts

    For a very large percentage of PC users, a 300 to 400 Watts PSU will be more than sufficient. It is more than capable of powering a PC with a good processor, a single middle to high end GPU, and a few drives. For those who aim for the lowest possible price for a product of acceptable quality, we recommend a relatively old but proven PSU, the Antec EarthWatts EA-380D. Antec's design is nearly four years old but it remains a solid performer and retails for just $40 including shipping. On the other hand, Seasonic's SSR-360GP 80 Plus Gold certified offering retails for $60 including shipping and comes with a 5-year warranty, making it a good choice for those willing to spend a little bit extra for better performance and a longer warranty.

    400 to 600 Watts

    There is a very large selection of products within this power range but there is a definite winner when value is the major factor: the Corsair CS450M. It is impossible to beat the value of this unit; it is 80 Plus Gold certified, modular and retails for just $60 including shipping, with a $30 rebate card. Strangely, the 550W model retails for the exact same price, but comes with a $20 rebate card instead. For their retail price and the features they offer, the value of Corsair's CSM series is next to impossible to match.

    Corsair CS Series 450 Watt ATX Modular and Efficient Power Supply CS450M -
    Price: $56.99 & FREE Shipping  (6/1/2015)    amazon.com

    old PC (4/2007):  ALiveNF5-eSATA2+.pdf     install eSATA     DIY Steps

    duty accomplished (2012): Kingston 2GB RAM ( DDR2 2GB PC5300 DUAL KIN (2X1GB) SPEED 667MHz ) - used memtest86 to find out err in RAM.  [next time, using memtest86+ will be even better.]

    duty accomplished (2/2013): PSU ( ENERMAX Noisetaker II EG495P-VE ATX12V 485W Power Supply 115/230 V ) - replaced with Antec VP-450 450W ATX 12V v2.3 ($39.99)

    The VP450 is crafted for just three things: Quality, performance and incredible value. This entry-level solution gives you everything you need in a power supply. No twinkly lights or glittery paint jobs - just a 120 mm fan for effective and quiet cooling, dual +12V rails for amazingly stable power, and heavy-duty protection circuitry for peace of mind, no matter how demanding your system. And it comes with all the assurance of Antec's AQ2 Antec Quality 2-year limited warranty. All the features, none of the waste: For builders that are strictly business, the VP450 is strictly power.




    ATX 12V v2.3
    Maximum Power
    1 x 120mm Fan
    Main Connector
    +12V Rails
    PCI-Express Connector
    1 x 6-Pin
    SATA Power Connector
    Over Voltage Protection
    Input Voltage
    110VAC - 120VAC, 220VAC - 240VAC ±10%
    Input Frequency Range
    50/60 Hz
    Input Current
    10A Max @ 110VAC, 5A MAX. @ 220VAC
    +3.3V@24A, +5V@15A, +12V1@18A, +12V2@18A, -12V@0.3A, +5VSB@2.5A
    5.9" (H) x 5.9" (W) x 3.4" (D)
    3.3 lbs.


    1 x Main connector (20+4Pin)
    1 x 4+4 Pin EPS/ATX 12V
    4 x Peripheral
    4 x SATA  (but I already have 5 SATA device - DVD / SSD / D (Seagate 320GB) / Hitachi2TB / O (1TB)
    1 x Floppy
    1 x PCI-E
    EuP 2010 compliant assuring efficiency and low standby power consumption

    Heavy-duty protection circuitry on all rails prevents damage from a variety of dangers:
    - Over Current Protection (OCP)
    - Over Voltage Protection (OVP)
    - Short Circuit Protection (SCP)
    - Over Power Protection (OPP)

    Manufacturer Warranty

    2 years limited
    2 years limited

    Quick Info


    • Limited Warranty period (parts): 2 years
    • Limited Warranty period (labor): 2 years

    How to read IDE HDD?

    1. IDE-to-USB enclosure

    2. the PCI to IDE card on my old PC

    3. the two IDE supported by the mobo on my old PC, now supporting the 2 DVD drives.

    4. buy a new PCI to IDE card, even some only support to XP; may also support Win7.  This one supports Win7 32/64-bit: SYBA SD-VIA-1A2S VIA PCI SATA 1.5G / IDE ATA 133 Combo Controller Card / Supports Raid 0, 1, 0+1, JBOD, non-RAID mode (48-bit LBA Mode for Connecting HDD More Than 137GByte.; Support up to 2-PATA Hard Disk.)

    The future of Serial ATA:

    SATA Express FAQ

    SATA Express, NGFF and NVM Express   M.2 (formerly known as the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF))   more  

    State of the art SSDs can nowadays easily reach the maximum transfer rate of the SATA 600 interface. As the name suggests, the theoretical max transfer rate is 600MB/s, but in practice it's around 550MB/s that's possible.

    Many SSDs approach that number even for writing by now. An additional factor is the software-based control of SATA devices, the so-called AHCI (Advance Host Controller Interface) standard.  It's not very well-suited for sending multiple tasks simultaneously, while SSDs are very adept at just that. So the Serial ATA 600 bus is really the limiting factor here. If manufacturers want to make faster SSDs, we'll soon need a new interface.

    Read more: http://www.itproportal.com/2013/04/03/future-serial-ata-sata-express-ngff-and-nvm-express/#ixzz2TAmR4q2I

    (1) faster SSD needs SATA 600.  Check my new PC using my faster black SATA cable or not.  I think NOT.
    (2) PCIe technology enables up to 1GB/s (1000MB/s) per lane, as compared to SATA at 0.6GB/s.   The latest generation of PCIe supports 8Gb/s (or 1GB/s) which provides an immediate speed increase over SATA at 6Gb/s (or 0.6GB/s), and PCIe can scale up in performance by simply adding lanes.
    (3) SATA Express is NOT Serial ATA 1200! 
    (4) SATA Express is supposed to enable faster SSDs, but it's actually not a new SATA standard. SATA Express is nothing more than PCI-Express in all actuality. This interface is currently used for expansion card and chips inside PCs. A single PCI-Express 3.0 lane has a transfer rate of 1 GB/s. The advantage of PCI-Express is that you can combine lanes. PCI-Express x1 (or x2?) offers 2 GB/s, x4 offers 4 GB/s and x16 – GPUs use this – even 16 GB/s. 
    (5) The SATA Express connector has two PCI-Express lanes, so if it's PCI-Express 3.0 that means a max transfer rate of 2 GB/s, three times that of SATA600.
    (6) Also, when PCI-Express in the future goes to version 4.0, SATA Express will also increase from 2 GB/s to 4 GB/s!
    (7) The new SATA Express connector contains both Serial ATA and PCI-Express.  pic   So to build new PC, find one mobo has the new SATA Express connector and controller.  Year 2014 or later!
    (8) So PCI-Express to USB 3.0 or to (e)SATA 600 card will increase transfer speed when using with USB 3.0 cable /  SATA III cable.


    The new SATA Express controller addresses the main problems for desktops and all-in-one PCs, but how about laptops? Ultrabooks are so slim that 2.5-inch SSDs are making room for mSATA models instead. Those only take a fraction of the space, measuring about 50 mm x 30 mm x 4 mm. This standard also has limitations, however.

    mSATA is also limited to 600 MB/s, like normal SATA devices. Their small size only has room for a controller and about four flash chips, so adding chips for more capacity isn't possible. To address these issues laptops will also get a new connector. It has yet to receive an official name, so for the time being they're called Next Generation Form Factor, or NGFF.

      that will help isolate any kind of PC case problem you might have.



    similar problem as mine:  http://www.tomshardware.com/forum/221143-29-burning-smell

    but I found burning smell seems to come only when I bt with uTorrent on drive K.  Could it be the on-board NIC?  or HDD? or the fanless video card?

    I disabled on-board NIC; then the burning smell is less than before, nearly disappeared.  Even doing bt without problem.  Just occasionally get this smell when the PC case is opened.

    GIGABYTE GA-F2A85X-UP4 FM2 AMD A85X (Hudson D4) HDMI SATA 6Gb/s USB 3.0 ATX AMD Motherboard - newegg.com $120 (6/11/2013)

    Supports socket FM2 AMD A-series/ Athlon-series processors   -   7 x SATA3


    AMD A10-5800K Trinity 3.8GHz (4.2GHz Turbo) Socket FM2 100W Quad-Core Desktop APU (CPU + GPU) with DirectX 11 Graphic AMD Radeon HD 7660D AD580KWOHJBOX - newegg.com $130 (6/11/2013) - will my 450W PSU overload?

    AMD A4-5300 Trinity 3.4GHz (3.6GHz Turbo) Socket FM2 65W Dual-Core Desktop APU (CPU + GPU) with DirectX 11 Graphic AMD Radeon HD 7480D AD5300OKHJBOX - newegg.com $55 (6/11/2013)

    The PC: Back from the dead, again

    Western Digital launches My Passport Wireless hard drive with built-in SD card reader ( Sep 6, 2014 )
    When a memory card is inserted into the drive it can be set back up your photos or automatically ingest all images, then wipe the card clean afterwards. To view your images you can either connect the drive to a computer using USB3, or you can connect to it wirelessly using the free WD My Cloud mobile app. For photographers looking to travel light, this could be an excellent way to manage your photos on the road without needing to bring a laptop
    The drive runs on an internal battery that reportedly provides 6 hours of video streaming and up to 20 hours of standby time and also features FTP functionality to allow wireless-enabled cameras to send photos directly to the drive whilst shooting. If you are working with a team of photographers and editors, up to 8 people can connect to the drive simultaneously to access the content.
    The My Passport Wireless drive will be available in late September, priced at $129.99 for 500GB, $179.99 for 1 TB and $219.99 for 2 TB. The supporting WD My Cloud mobile app is available for free from the iOS App Store and the Google Play store.
    The My Passport Wireless drive broadcasts its own wireless network that allows up to eight devices to connect at the same time and access any content stored on the drive.
    The portable wireless drive features Wireless N with MIMO technology for enhanced wireless performance so that users can access and transfer files quickly, as well as stream up to four HD videos simultaneously.
    In additional to mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, the portable wireless storage drive is an ideal companion for cameras with its integrated SD card slot. Whether shooting large commercial photography and video production or just taking photos and videos of the family while on vacation, the My Passport Wireless drive will never let you miss a moment because your memory cards are full. The built-in SD card slot lets users copy their content from the SD card to the My Passport Wireless drive to make room for more memorable moments. Additionally, with integrated FTP, the drive connects to compatible wireless cameras so that users can automatically transfer photos from their cameras to the drive as they are taking them.
    There are several types of devices on the market for backing up SD cards. The cheaper ones take the form of something like this:
    http://www.amazon.com/EZOPower-Portable-Wireless-External-Smartphone/dp/B00EP13JBC/ref=pd_sim_sbs_p_3?ie=UTF8&refRID=0K1FRCG26R96S94C5D98 and other variations from other makes. Should work in the field if you have an iPhone or Android phone. Also serves as additional storage for your smartphone/tablet. With that being said, I don't see any issues with the WD unit being reviewed. Yes, it has been done before; however, competition is always a good thing for the consumer, so more power to them! I'm not too worried about the spinning drive. I've had a WD Passport for about six years now that still functions great, has been carried around in various pockets many times, in the field, etc. and still shows no signs of impending failure. With that being said, an SSD would be nice, but will cost more.  src

    EZOPower Portable Wireless SD Card Reader & USB External HDD / SDD / USB Flash Disk Reader with Built in 2600mAh External Battery Pack Charger for iPhone, iPad, Tablet, Android Phone, Smartphone - Amazon $34.99

    Can I use this device to backup an sd card to external HD without a computer?

    Answer #1: Yes, but you must follow specific requirements. You need to have the external hard drive on the standard USB. The EZO needs to be fully charged AND plugged in to the microusb and charging. It must be connected to your wireless network. You'll need to install a file program like ES3 for file management. Then add your EZO as a new server under the ES3 lan options. Once that is done copy all your sd files to your hdd. I know it sounds like a lot, but it will work. But you still need something wifi, like a phone or tablet to run the ES3 app.

    Answer #2: as long as both the sdcard and hard drive are connected to the ezo it should work just fine

    So in my case, just $35, I can transfer my SD card to my WD My Passport with my smartphone Prism II.  Steps: (1) Connect WD My Passport to the standard USB port on EZO; (2) Put SD card into EZO; (3) Install App on Prism II; (4) Install ES3 on Prism II; (5) Add EZO as a new server under the ES3 LAN options; (6) File copy from SD to WD.

    Budget laptop: Google "compaq AMD laptop"

    PC alternatives:

    (1) Intel's Compute Stick - info-1

    - plugs into an HDMI 1.4a port 

    - an $89 Linux version, and the $149 model that's running Windows 8.1 with Bing. 

    - The Stick plugs into a display by way of its HDMI 1.4a port, which will handle streaming duties. Bluetooth 4.0 connectivity lets you pair peripherals like a mouse and keyboard, while 802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi gets you onto the Web. The Compute Stick can't draw power from its HDMI port, so you'll need to plug in a Micro-USB cable to keep it powered up.

    - So to use it at home, I need (1) a new monitor with HDMI 1.4a port; (2) Bluetooth 4.0 mouse & keyboard.


    Should I Buy a Chromebook? (September 27, 2017)

      Chromebook Price
    Best Overall Asus Chromebook Flip C302CA $499
    Budget Pick Lenovo N22 Chromebook $159 
    Best for School Dell Chromebook 3189 $329
    Best 2-in-1 Chromebook Samsung Chromebook Pro $549
    Best for Business Acer Chromebook For Work 14 $542


    News and Rumors


    Chromebooks are optimized for Google's apps, such as Gmail, Google Calendar and Google Drive.

    ... Microsoft Office Online, the free cloud version of Office, is available as a webpage in the Chrome browser, and you can always use the native Google Drive to open and edit documents and spreadsheets.

    .. Fortunately, Google Drive allows you to save documents to Microsoft formats

    If those limitations concern you, Android apps are now coming to Chromebooks. However, only a select few systems can access the Google Play store at this time. The idea is to give Chromebooks access to more games, productivity options and other apps to make these machines more versatile.

    Right now, Android-capable Chromebooks include the Samsung Chromebook Plus, Asus Chromebook Flip, Acer Chromebook R11 and Google’s own Chromebook Pixel. 


    My tentative verdict: 

    Acer Chromebook R13 - review-1 - microSD card slot, NOT SD!

    Acer Chromebook R11
    $249.00 · Walmart  Free shipping - Acer Chromebook R11 CB5-132T-C67Q Touch screen Chromebook with Intel Celeron N3060 Processor, 11.6" IPS Multitouch screen 4GB Memory, 32GB SSD and Google Chrome OS

    This Chromebook has the ports you need for light use and work. The left side has the DC-in jack for power, an HDMI port, a USB 3.0 port and an SD card slot. The right side is home to the headphone/mic jack, a USB 2.0 port, a lock slot and the power button.

    Chrome OS Systems Supporting Android Apps